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Vegetation The Icelandic flora comprises relatively few plant species due to the isolation of the country, harsh climate and short growing season.
Furthermore, the soil erosion has in many areas resulted in widespread deterioration of the natural vegetation 7. Table 2 shows that large areas of the country are poorly vegetated.
Table 2. On the rangelands where native grasses and sedges are the most important grazing plants, no fertilisers are applied.
Common application rates for hayfields are kg N, 20 kg P and 50 kg K per hectare, they are somewhat higher for arable crops such as Italian ryegrass, turnips, potatoes, cabbages and carrots but barley grown for grain production receives lower N rates 8.
Agricultural production Although the human population of Iceland has more than doubled over the last 50 years and the number of farmers has fallen considerably, agricultural production has for several years been more than sufficient to meet domestic market demand for livestock products such as meat, milk and eggs and there is a growing supply of vegetables and barley.
The use of geothermally heated glasshouses enables farmers in some districts to grow a wider range of crops such as cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers.
Table 3 below summarises the estimated proportional value of agricultural products in Iceland. It underlines the fact that grassland-based enterprises, mainly cattle and sheep production, are of the utmost importance.
Although organic growing has only attracted widespread attention in recent years it should be kept in mind that Icelandic agriculture was largely based on organic principles until the middle of the 20th century.
During the intervening period only a few pioneers have practiced recognised organic growing but since the tide has been turning A total of 40 organic farmers and processors have been certified since of whom 2 are biodynamic.
From the Soil Association in the United Kingdom undertook organic inspection and certification in Iceland on a temporary basis but since Icelandic inspection and certification services have been provided by two verifying agencies registered according to a new law and regulations.
The text of the regulations is available in both Icelandic and English Amongst other important steps taken to strengthen the development of organic farming in recent years are the foundation of the National Association of Organic Farmers VOR in , the establishment of the Ministry of Agriculture Advisory Committee on Organic Agriculture in and the Council for Science and Technology in Organic Agriculture in Imports have been increasing in recent years, mainly of fruit and vegetable products, but as yet only organic lamb and seaweed products have been exported.
Positive aspects In an ad hoc working group looking into the scientific and technical prospects of organic farming under Icelandic conditions presented a report to the Minister of Agriculture.
Both advantages and restrictions were addressed in an objective way 43 Recent student projects at university and college levels have also helped to analyse the present situation and to identify the main areas of research and development needed to realise the potential of organic agriculture under Icelandic conditions 14,15,16,17,18,19, Overseas visitors from several countries, including highly fruitful contacts with the IFOAM, have also helped us to evaluate our place in the organic world.
Although the cool climate puts Iceland at a certain disadvantage as far as crop production is concerned it benefits organic husbandry from the point of view that there are fewer animal and plant diseases and those present are generally less severe than in most others countries.
Isolation, sparse population and low levels of polluting industrial activity have indeed contributed beneficially to this situation.
Thus the use of drugs and agrochemicals is at low levels in conventional agriculture and pollution of soil, air, water and agricultural products, of both plant and animal origin, is minimal.
Thus levels of contaminants, for example of cadmium, are negligible It should also be emphasised that livestock production is to a large extent based on free-range grassland utilisation and is characterised by locally adapted native breeds in which a high degree of genetic diversity is maintained.
Last, but not least, looking at the positive side, it is important to keep in mind that the level of education amongst farmers is generally high and, moreover, agricultural research, teaching and advisory services are based on a strong tradition.
Restrictions It is abundantly clear that during the latter half of the 20th century agricultural production in Iceland has depended heavily on the use of artificial fertilisers for cultivated land, mainly on grass for hay and silage making and for some arable crops, as indicated above.
Little attention has been paid to organic fertilisers during this period. The dependence on artificial fertilisers and lack of sufficient quantities of organic fertilisers are by far the most difficult obstacles to a large-scale conversion to organic farming in Iceland 12, More precisely, the main bottleneck is the supply 44 of N.
This situation is aggravated by difficulties in growing nitrogen fixing legumes, such as white clover in hay fields, mainly due to the cool climate.
Shortage of P is likely to be a limiting factor on certain soils, for example, on peat bogs in WestIceland, while the K content is probably sufficient in most cases.
Consequently, a greater input of organic fertilisers is required, for example, in order to produce enough certified organic hay and silage for winter feeding of livestock undergoing organic conversion.
Provision of shelter, particularly for arable crops, would improve growing conditions considerably, especially on the exposed lowlands in SouthIceland.
Thus the growing of shelter-belts should be included in organic conversion plans and on farms where soil erosion problems exist special revegetation efforts would be needed to fulfil requirements of sustainability Crop production While the rangeland pastures, which are mainly utilised for sheep and horses, should be looked upon as sustainable resources without any external input of fertilisers, the relatively small area of cultivated land requires fertilisation if acceptable yields are to be obtained as pointed out above.
Grass for conservation as hay and increasingly as roller - bale silage, is the main crop, and these fields which are seldom ploughed up are also to a certain extent utilised for grazing, especially for cattle.
The hay-fields are supplemented by arable crops such as spring sown Italian ryegrass, rape, oats, barley and fodder turnips.
The most important vegetables grown outdoors are potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbages and cauliflower as well as herbs and rhubarb while the most prominent glasshouse crops are cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers and a wide range of flowers.
Most of these crops are already grown organically on a small scale and the products have been well received by the market.
A review of the scientific literature in Iceland shows clearly that throughout this century much research has been devoted to the use of farmyard manure, fish meal, seaweed meal and the growing of various legumes 23,24,25,26,27,28,29, Much of the early work carried out before the use of artificial fertilisers became widespread is certainly relevant today since the results may be applied in organic growing.
At present much emphasis is placed on legume research ranging from indigenous white clover to imported red clover and lupines. This work was highlighted at a symposium held at the Agricultural Research Institute in April Amongst recent projects on sources of organic fertilisers are the use of fish offal 31 , composting of urban waste 32,33 and the use of mushroom compost in glasshouse production Attention has also been paid to possibilities of processing slaughterhouse waste into organic fertilisers Ideally the supply of organic fertilisers should be increased substantially so as to replace artificial fertilisers on a large scale and it would be a major breakthrough if persistent and high yielding nitrogen fixing legumes could be grown in hay-fields and introduced into rotations with grasses, root-crops and cereals.
Linked with the growing of trees in shelterbelts, mainly birch and willow species, the conditions for organic farming would improve substantially.
It should be noted that there are ample sources of calcium from sea-shells and seaweed is plentiful in Iceland whereas no phosphate rock is found in the country.
The application of biological control of pests in glasshouses, now widely practiced in Iceland, clearly fits well into organic horticulture Animal production The development of certified organic livestock production is lagging somewhat behind that of crop production as in other countries but there are signs of progress, 45 particularly as far as sheep are concerned 36,37, So far the only certified livestock products are lamb, beef, milk and eggs, all on a small scale.
Other products may be certified in the near future such as arctic char, eider-down and horse meat. As a consequence of the shortage of plant nutrients in an organic form the main problem facing conversion of livestock enterprises is lack of sufficient certified organic hay and silage for winterfeeding of cattle, sheep and horses Furthermore, poultry and pig production in particular face severe restrictions due to the small amount of certified organic grain available in the country.
Compounding of livestock rations will on the other hand not be limited by protein availability as fishmeal, mainly processed from filleting offal and fish not fit for human consumption, is an excellent source of certified organic protein supplement Fields in conversion and certified organic fields tend to give lower yields of hay and silage and in some cases with lower nutritive value than conventional fields, especially during the first few years after conversion starts However, long-term experiments indicate promising results in organically grown hay-fields where sheep-dung is applied 40 but it is clear that a conversion period of at least years is needed in the cool Icelandic climate 40, On some farms the supplies of hay and silage certified to organic standards may be increased by the utilisation of natural meadows where sedges dominate Carex species.
As a matter of fact, most of the hay fed to Icelandic sheep and horses until years ago was harvested from such meadows without the use of any fertilisers.
Meadows were commonly warped with water containing sediment from rivers and streams 42,43, Although yields and nutritive value of meadow hay are generally lower than of hay from cultivated fields 42,45 palatability and intakes are normally satisfactory.
Since most of the meadows are on wetlands some specialised machinery may be needed to make their utilisation practical again and I believe this should be looked into.
Grazing on natural rangelands as practiced in Iceland is in most cases in good harmony with organic husbandry.
Excellent growth rates of lambs and foals are achieved and parasite infection is not a problem under such extensive conditions 46, Grazing on intensively grazed cultivated land would, however, require careful planning in an organic farming system Seaweed wrack foraging of sheep and horses can supplement organic fodder in winter on several coastal farms It is clear that organic conversion will require some modifications in health control, veterinary treatment and in housing facilities, especially in cattle, pig and poultry units.
Rural development The decline of the rural population is viewed with great concern in Iceland and this development is directly linked with a substantial reduction in sheep numbers and production since the late s It is vitally important to seek ways and means of providing stable employment based on local resources and I am one of those who share the view that conversion to organic farming is a step in that direction.
This would be in harmony with the official policy of quality control in all branches of agriculture and may place farm produce in a stronger marketing position The public image of organics is certainly favourable and the market is expanding.
The environmental benefits of organic agriculture are obvious and the conversion process can, for example, be linked with green tourism, farm holiday services, eco-village development, permaculture, forestry and soil conservation 22, Ideally the processing of organic farm produce should take place locally.
Thus in my opinion the official policy of reducing substantially the number of slaughterhouses and dairies should be reviewed with this in mind.
As organic agriculture is in its infancy in 46 Iceland with few and scattered producers better organisation of processing and marketing is urgently needed.
Conclusions Sustainable development is on the agenda of the Government of Iceland. Moreover, organic farming is normally looked upon as sustainable agriculture in practice 51,52, Thus I consider it logical to support the view that an organic grant scheme should be established comparable to such schemes in the other Nordic countries.
Some support is already available but a greater effort is needed to stimulate the conversion process. Furthermore, greater attention should be paid to the potential of organic agriculture under Icelandic conditions.
I consider conversion to organic farming practices in all parts of Iceland a great challenge to the scientific community as viable biological and technical solutions need to be sought to solve certain problems discussed above.
These may lead to some modifications in existing farming systems, for example, in sheep production We know that conversion of cultivated land to organic standards takes a long time due to the cool climate, some soil types may not be suitable for organic growing and it is abundantly clear that the supply of organic plant nutrients must be increased substantially.
At least some of the experimental results already available, for example, on the utilisation of farmyard manure and the growing of legumes, may be applied at farm level and also used in the planning of new research projects on organic farming.
Research, teaching and advisory work must focus much more on organic agriculture than hitherto and I am pleased to be able to report here that certain positive developments are taking place in that area in co-operation with organic farmers.
Being the first and still the only official adviser on organic farming in Iceland I look forward with optimism because I have come to the conclusion that organic agriculture is the way to go into the future.
The effects on the carrying capacity of rangeland pastures. Parry, T. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. The soils of Iceland.
University Research Institute. Department of Agriculture Reports, series B no. Some physical properties of Icelandic soils.
Nordisk jordbruksforskning 77 2 , Summary in English: Soils of denuded areas in Iceland. Changes in land utilization in Iceland with special reference to conservation of soil and vegetation.
Proceeding of NJF-seminar nr. Factors affecting production and stability of northern ecosystem. In: Grazing Research at Northern Latitudes, p.
Recent developments in organic agriculture in Iceland. Ecology and Farming 22, September-December , Regulations on organic agricultural production No.
The Ministry of Agriculture, 24 pp. Freyr 91 6 , The status of research and development in organic farming in Iceland.
Brockmeyer - Urbschat, R. Cadmium in livers and kidneys of Icelandic lambs. Hermannsson, J. Summary in English: Cultivation and utilization of red clover in Iceland.
Freyr 95 11 , The current situation concerning the use of municipal organic waste in Iceland. Proceedings of NJF-seminar No.
The potential of organic sheep farming in Iceland. Sheep and goat farming in Iceland - a summary of the situation in Mimeograph 13 pp. Using the sea as a resource for animal agriculture in Iceland.
Journal of the University of Wales Agricultural Society 75, Freyr 93 6 , Fyrri hluti. Seinni hluti. Grazing and lamb growth.
In: Reproduction, Growth and Nutrition in Sheep. Horse grazing under cold and wet conditions: a review. Livestock Production Science 40, , Special 49 Issue, Horse breeding and production in cold climatic regions.
Summary in English: Grazing experiments with sheep and calves on cultivated grassland at Hvanneyri during the summers of Environmentally - linked quality control of Icelandic agricultural production.
Organic farming: sustainable agriculture in practice, chapter 1, p. Is organic agriculture compatible with economic efficiency?
Summary: Nordisk jordbruksforskning 77 2 , Ecology and Farming May-August , Comparison of a high-input versus low-input system for Icelandic sheep production.
Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 12, For further information on organic farming in Iceland see the Farmers Association webpage: www.
A farm systems approach is adopted to examine the effect of stocking rate and feed supply in an organic dairy production system. Within this, research is evaluating grass quality, nutrient cycling, milk quality and protocols for disease control in cows especially mastitis.
Two aspects of grain production will be evaluated, namely a comparison of cereal species and an evaluation of varieties within each species.
Once completed, sowing date and seed rate aspects of the system will be evaluated. An eighteen-hectare site will be set aside for conversion to organic production in Oak Park.
A baseline study on the soil fertility, structure, etc. Within each crop, key agronomic factors, such as variety, seed-rate, date of sowing, weed control and disease effects will be evaluated.
This project will provide an overview of the current situation for organic production in five EU member states.
It will also 51 examine the main economic and motivational decisions undertaken by farmers considering converting to organic production. Farmers, retailers and consumers will be interviewed with a view to identifying relevant marketing channels and the nature and magnitude of consumer demand for organic and in-conversion organic products.
The main barriers to organic conversion will become evident and ultimately this project will generate recommendations to policy-makers regarding the facilitation of conversion to organic methods of production.
In the production of organic bakery products there is a shortage of suitable organic ingredients. Product development and production is thus hindered resulting in the fact that demand for organic bakery products far outstrips supply.
Know how is fragmented on the functionality of novel organic ingredients used as replacements for conventional ingredients , difficult to come by and, for commercial reasons, is not always shared.
This problem will be overcome by identifying functional ingredients that would be suitable and acceptable in an organic regime for bakery products and by improving the quality of organic flour where necessary.
The suitability of these ingredients will be assessed by the production of a range of acceptable and quality breads yeast, sourdough and soda and confectionery.
A technical manual will also be prepared for the production of organic bakery products to include novel ingredients, which will be of practical use to the baking and milling industries as well as ingredient suppliers.
Increased attention to alternative enterprise development, including organic production, is vital for rural viability.
Potential entrepreneurs need reliable marketing, financial and technical data on the establishment of these new enterprises. The main alternative enterprises will be investigated to establish the rate of uptake and factors affecting uptake, establishment costs, output, production costs and profit margins.
In addition, problems encountered in developing new enterprises will be identified, as well as the main sources of information and market outlets for new products arising from these enterprises.
Data will be collected on an ongoing basis from a random sample of producers who have diversified. Factors affecting the eating quality and consumer perception will also be assessed.
Samples will be evaluated under a variety of storage and packaging conditions and indices of quality such as colour stability, drip loss, water-holding capacity, lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics will be measured.
The organisation has also converted the farm at its agricultural college in Athenry, Co. Galway and this is being used for training in organic production.
Other Drivers of Research Research is being driven, to a certain extent, by the demands of existing organic producers and also by those producers who are considering organic production in response to changes in the CAP and incentives available under the Rural Environmental Protection Scheme REPS.
The Report of the Organic Development Committee April , established by the Minister of State at the Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, will form an important driver for research in the sector in the future.
Amongst other issues, the Report recommended that Teagasc should carry out a commercial appraisal on the key products within the main organic food sectors.
It also recommended that sufficient funding be made available to enable research to target a list of priority topics.
The Report identified traceability in organic systems and the clear identification of veterinary and chemical products as matters of high importance across all areas of organic farming.
Management of soil fertility in organic systems Animal health management Ecological and biodiversity elements of organic farming systems Economic and marketing of organic production and food products.
Research Effects on Policy and Production Levels Given the small scale of the research undertaken to date in Ireland, it is not possible to detect any direct effect of research on the national policy agenda on organic farming.
However, Teagasc does contribute to the ongoing policy debate and was represented on the Organic Development Committee referred to above.
Overall there is an information deficit in the Irish organic sector and this seriously inhibits the development of the sector. Market information needs to be managed to provide appropriate information to producers, processors, distributors, buyers and retailers in the organic sector.
Information on the supply base and market demand at retail level needs to be analysed and communicated to all the links in the supply chain.
The information needs of the consumer must also be addressed. Such information would facilitate greater co-ordination in the organic sector and could provide the catalyst for the necessary development of the production, processing and distribution sectors.
Awareness of customers in Israel and in the traditional markets for produce in Europe and the United States to food safety greatly enhanced to trend to encourage the transition to organic farming.
However, the geographical position of Israel between three differing continents, Asia, Europe and Africa and the variable climate conditions ranging from Mediterranean to arid and semi-tropical expose the organic growers to more severe epidemics of pests and disease agents than for European growers.
The call for proposal deals with three key issues: 1. Development of appropriate organic plant nutrition adapted to various sites in the country, various soils and under the extreme water shortage conditions of the Israeli agriculture.
Development of the organic farming technology in protected crops and in open fields The main research centers are: 1. Additionally, you may have to pay extra charges for licence fee for TV and radio.
The deposit serves as security for the furnished room should need be for any repairs or a renovation after your move out.
The deposit will however be reimbursed when your rent agreement expires, but only provided that you leave the room in a good condition.
Please make sure that the Housing Service will receive the full amount of the advance payment of:. Any bank charges must be borne by you. Please ask your bank prior to the transfer about the amount of fees, up to 40 Euro can incur in individual cases.
All rooms will be allocated automatically by the Housing Service according to availability and to the order of receipt of the applications.
International freshmen will be favored. Therefore we would advise you to apply early. The reservation of a room cannot be guaranteed if your application reaches the Housing Service after the given application period.
M ale and female students from different countries will usually be accommodated together! On special request, we can offer male or female only flats.
If, e. Individual accommodation preferences can be communicated to the Housing Service by e-mail, but their realization cannot be guaranteed.
The room, that the Housing Service allocates to you, has to be accepted. Otherwise you must look for a private room yourself.
Not always the first priority can be fulfilled if you consider that more than students have to be accommodated by us every semester.
All the relevant information on your dormitory, such as the address, the rent agreement, the responsible caretaker, will be e-mailed to you by the housing service after the allocation of rooms has been finished.
The reservation for the rooms becomes invalid if we do not receive the advance payment, and if you do not sign and return the rental agreement until the deadline given by the Housing Service.
You can first send the contract by e-mail, but the original document is needed at last, too! Please post the signed original rent agreement to:.
Should your personal details change and must they be updated, please inform the Housing Service by e-mail.
The Housing Service has to be informed immediately if you have to withdraw from your application for any reason. The deposit can only be refunded for cancellations that have been sent to the Housing Service in writing and within the following deadlines :.
The Housing Service has set some dates for international students, they will stay for one semester, moving into the residences of Studentenwerk Osnabrück:.
Please note: Should these dates happen to be on a weekend Saturday and Sunday , alternative dates will be fixed since moving in can only be realised on weekdays Monday to Friday due to the working time of the caretakers.
In exceptional cases, it may happen that the rental period starts later or ends earlier. You will be informed via e-mail and with sending you the temporary rental agreement.
Tip: You should try to consider the above dates when making your travel arrangements. Should you not be able to arrive and to move in on these dates, please arrange an alternative date with the caretaker.
Please find the caretakers' contact details here. The contact details of your buddy will be e-mailed to you by the IFO shortly before the semester starts.
The buddy can support you in moving into your residence as follows:. Moreover, there are some student tutors in the residences of Studentenwerk Osnabrück who can be contacted to help you to get settled into your housing complex and in case of any problem in your flat-sharing community.
In this case, please first get in touch with the housing service.The enhanced interest in the conversion to organic farming practices in all parts of Iceland is indeed a great challenge to the scientific community to seek sustainable solutions to such problems. A lot of postings. Really a lot of Redog facts. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or 2 pictures. Once completed, sowing date and seed rate aspects of the system will be evaluated. Aku dan isteri Asmadi pula tanpa lengah masa terus start cemolot dan kami saling menghisap lidah Medikamente Bei Parkinson sama lain macam dah selalu jumpa. It is thus Spider Solitaire Ohne Zeitlimit so Spielothek OsnabrГјck the particular methodologies, which characterise organic farming, but rather the overall context and mutual relationships within which problems are defined. Sozialgeschichte der Familie in der Neuzeit, in Norbert Schneider ed. Rental periods and Costs. Hinterlasse eine Antwort Spielothek OsnabrГјck abbrechen Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. This is the principal Sporting Gijon for advanced studies in agriculture in Israel including courses on Organic Farming and Crop Momaily Erfahrungen. Sheffield Velika Britanijaod Doneck Ukrajinaod Europski filmski festival na kojemu se za europsku filmsku nagradu dijelio tzv. I seemed on the internet for the issue and located most people will associate with with your website.